Common at low and middle elevations east of Cascade crest in steppe and agricultural habitats. Often breeds in shrubby hardwood groves in wetlands or along streams. Rare and local breeder west of Cascades, as at Spencer Island near Everett, just north of our area in Snohomish County. One "possible" BBA record near Duvall. Nested nearby in clearcut at Lake Joy in 1978 and 1979 (Hunn 1982); two previous King County nesting records from 1893 and 1906 (Jewett et al. 1953).